Arum is a tuberous herbaceous perennial. Leaves and flowers emerge from tubers and each flower consists of an erect, finger-like spadix covered with minute, creamy white flowers and a large light green bract which partially envelops the spadix. After bloom, leaves and bract die leaving only the spadix which develops attractive, bright orange-red berries .
All plant parts are toxic: tubers, leaves, bracts, flowers, berries.
All parts are abundant in saponins (arin), alkaloids (n-methyl-coiine), calcium oxalates which have needle-shaped crystals which irritate the skin, mouth, tongue, throat and result in swelling of throat, difficulty breathing, burning pain and upset stomach .
Arum italicum, A. maculatum, poisonous plant
 D. Atha, B. Boom, A. Thornbrough, J. Kurtz, L. McIntyre, M. Hagen, J. A. Schuler, Arum italicum (Araceae) is invasive in New York, “Phytoneuron”, 2017;31:1-18
 N. Tamilselvan, T. Thirumalai, P. Shyamala, E. David, A review on some poisonous plants and their medicinal values, “Journal of acute disease”, 2014:85-89