Apples are one of the most consumed fruits in the word and they are rich in polyphenols, which provide antioxidant properties, mediation of cellular processes such as inflammation, and modulation of gut microbiota . They are also high in vitamins, minerals and dietary fibers .
The potential health benefits of apples are numerous. Regular consumption of this fruit, as part of a healthy diet, may aid in the prevention of chronic disease and maintenance of good health .
Apples contain a large concentration of flavonoids, as well as a variety of other phytochemicals such as vitamin B, C and minerals such as calcium, iron, zinc, magnesium, phosphorus. The concentration of these phytochemicals may depend on many factors, such as cultivar, harvest, storage and processing of the apples .
There are many different types of apples, with a variety of colors and sizes. La forma può essere tonda, ovale, oblunga, appiattita, costoluta, regolare o asimmetrica. La buccia è sottile, liscia, rugginosa o lenticellata, di colore verde, verde chiaro, giallo-verdognolo, giallo o rosso, uniforme o con macchie, sfumature e striature rosse o carminio, con punteggiature grigie, giallognole o rosso vino, con screziature biancastre, rosate, gialle o verdognole. La polpa è bianca, color crema, giallognola, soda, croccante, succosa, talora farinosa, di sapore acidulo, asprigno o dolce, gradevole, aromatica. All’interno si trovano semi ovoidali, scuri e lucidi, racchiusi in 5 logge cartilaginee.
Apples are eaten both raw and as processed products, such as cider, juice, and puree , anche come marmellate, composte, gelatine. Il loro sapore dolce-acidulo trova un perfetto alleato nel gusto asprigno della marmellata di ciliegie per una sinergia di colore, sapore, phytochemicals e micronutrienti.
 Espley RV, Butts CA, Laing WA, Martell S, Smith H, McGhie TK, ZhangJ, Paturi G, Hedderley D, Bovy A, Schouten HJ, Putterill J, Allan AC, Hellens RP, Dietary flavonoids from modified apple reduce inflammation markers and modulate gut microbiota in mice, “The Journal of nutrition”, 2014;144(2):146-54
 Alessandra Francini, Luca Sebastiani, Phenolic compounds in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.): compounds characterization and stability during postharvest and after processing, “Antioxidants”, 2013;2:181-193
 Jeanelle Boyer, Rui Hai Liu, Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits, “Nutrition Journal”, 2004;3:5