Red Beetroot, Beta vulgaris, var. rubra, per una scelta consapevole. Phytochemicals ed evidenze scientifiche for interesting health beneficial effects

Foglie lungamente picciolate con lembo spatoliforme, liscio, verde o verde sfumato di rosso, radici del diametro fino a 12 cm, carnose, globose, schiacciate, allungate, SONY DSCcilindriche, con polpa soda, croccante e dolciastra, di colore rosso-violaceo o rosso scuro, talora giallo-aranciato.
Le diverse cultivar si distinguono dalla forma della radice e a seconda del ciclo vegetativo, che può essere precoce, medio-precoce, tardivo, medio-tardivo. In alcune cultivar i pigmenti rossi sono presenti in modo uniforme e omogeneo in tutta la polpa, mentre in altre i fasci vascolari sono visibili come cerchi biancastri.
La radice cruda al naturale, affettata sottilmente e condita in insalata, altrimenti lessata2 intera, poi affettata e condita con una salsetta a base di aglio e prezzemolo, oppure cotta intera al forno e poi affettata sottilmente e impiegata per sughi e insalate oppure per guarnire piatti scialbi.
Le foglie giovanissime nelle misticanze e poi da cuocere in acqua e successivamente saltate in padella con olio d’oliva extravergine e odore dell’aglio.
Buono l’apporto di several bioactive agents (e.g. betain, betanin, vulgaxanthine, polyphenols, folic acid) and different metal elements (e.g. Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, 3Na, Zn), which act on the various physiological routes [1]. Inoltre epicatechin, rutin and caffeic acid, which to varying degrees appear to be well absorbed and bioavailable in humans [2]. Nello studio Nutritional and functional potential of Beta vulgaris cicla and rubra, si legge che Beta vulgaris cicla e Beta vulgaris rubra nella cucina dei paesi occidentali represent a highly renewable and cheap source of nutrients [3]. Di entrambi questi vegetali, già noti nella medicina popolare, modern pharmacology shows that BVc (Beta vulgaris cicla) extracts possess antihypertensive and hypoglycaemic activity as well as excellent antioxidant activity. BVc contains apigenin flavonoids, namely vitexin, vitexin-2-O-rhamnoside and vitexin-2-O-xyloside, which show antiproliferative activity onSONY DSC cancer cell lines. BVr (Beta vulgaris rubra) contains secondary metabolites, called betalains, which are used as natural dyes in food industry and show anticancer activity. In this light, BVc and BVr can be considered functional foods [3]. Lo studio The potential benefits of red beetroot supplementation in health and disease, mette in evidenza come la bieta rossa, essendo fonte di nitrati, provides a natural means of increasing in vivo nitric oxide (NO) availability and has emerged as a potential strategy to prevent and manage pathologies associated with diminished NO bioavailability, notably hypertension and endothelial function … its constituents, most notably the betalain pigments, display potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and chemo-preventive activity in vitro and in vivo [2]. The 5powerful antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and vascular-protective effects offered by beetroot and its constituents have been clearly demonstrated by several in vitro and in vivo human and animal studies … in the human studies to date, beetroot supplementation has been reported to reduce blood pressure, attenuate inflammation, avert oxidative stress, preserve endothelial function and restore cerebrovascular haemodynamics [2]. A confermare l’importanza della presenza di nitrati nella radice di bieta rossa vi sono altre evidenze scientifiche. The interest in beetroot has been largely driven by its nitrate content. Dietary nitrate may confer beneficial health effects via its sequential reduction to nitrite and nitric oxide (NOx), a pleiotropic molecule that plays a key role in6.jpg the regulation of vascular homoeostasis, immune function and metabolism [4]. Nitrate is not the only constituent of beetroot that may have beneficial effects for health. As well as being a good source of polyphenols, beetroot contains a group of betalamic acid derivatives known as betalains. The betalains are responsible for the red/violet colour of red beetroot or betaxanthins, which are yellow in colour. Betalains are water-soluble phytochemicals that have been shown to possess anti-7.jpginflammatory, antioxidant and chemo-preventive activities in vitro [4]. Il contenuto di betalaine e betaine varia a seconda delle modalità di coltivazione, the composition of betalain, red or yellow pigments, and betaine (trimethylglycine or glycinebetaine) of nine beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivars produced in the greenhouse or field was studied [5]. La betaina da valido agente metilante has been shown to protect internal organs, improve vascular risk factors and enhance performance [6].

Avvertenze

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Questo scritto vuole informare ed orientare il lettore verso scelte nutrizionistiche consapevoli, non intende assolutamente proporsi come guida di una qualsiasi indicazione e, tanto meno, di una qualsiasi prescrizione di carattere dietetico e/o medico.
La bieta rossa se consumata secondo il buon senso nutrizionistico non provoca danni di sorta, various constituents of Beta vulgaris exhibit a variety of therapeutic effects with little or no associated toxicity [7]. Viceversa il consumo massivo può provocare several disturbances not only in cases of healthy patients but, e.g. in patients suffering with metal accumulating diseases [1].

Giovanna Masini

Bibliografia

9[1] Blàzovics A, Sàrdi E, Szentmihàlvi K, Vàli L, Takàcs-Hàjos M, Stefanovits-Bànvai E, Extreme consumption of Beta vulgaris var. rubra can cause metal ion accumulation in the liver, “Acta Biologica Hungarica”, 2007;58(3):281-6

[2] Tom Clifford, Glyn Howatson, Daniel J. West, Emma J. Stevenson, The potential benefits of red beetroot supplementation in health and disease, “Nutrients”, 2015;7(4):2801-2822

[3] Ninfali P, Angelino D, Nutritional and functional potential of Beta vulgaris cicla and10 rubra, “Fitoterapia”, 2013;89(1):188-99

[4] Tom Clifford, Costas M. Constantinou, Karen M. Keane, Daniel J. West, Glyn Howatson, Emma J. Stevenson, The plasma bioavailability of nitrate and betanin from Beta vulgaris rubra in humans, “European Journal of Nutrition”, 2017;56(3):1245-1254

[5] Eun Jin Leet, Dami Ant, Chaut T. T. Nguyent, Betalain and betaine composition of greenhouse- or field-produced beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) and nhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation, “Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry”, 2014;62(6):1324-1331

[6] Staurt AS Craig, Betaine in human nutrition, “The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition”, 2004;80(3):539-549

[7] Sepide Miraj, Chemistry and pharmacological effect of Beta vulgaris: a systematic review, “Der Pharmacia Lettre”, 2016;8(19):404-409

 

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